Hair Loss: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

Hair Loss – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention: Hair loss can occur due to various factors, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle choices. It is also known as alopecia. Here’s some information on the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of hair loss.

Hair Loss: pattern of hair shedding in males and females?

The pattern of hair shedding can vary between males and females due to differences in hormonal influences and genetic factors. Here’s an overview of the typical patterns of hair shedding in males and females:


  • In males, the most common pattern of hair shedding is known as male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia.
  • It follows a distinct pattern that progresses over time.
  • Male pattern baldness is influenced by the hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is derived from testosterone.
  • The hair loss typically begins with a receding hairline at the temples, forming an “M” shape.
  • Over time, the hairline continues to recede, and the hair at the crown of the head may also start thinning.
  • In advanced stages, the bald areas at the temples and crown may eventually merge, leaving hair only on the sides and back of the head (referred to as the “horseshoe” pattern).


  • In females, the pattern of hair shedding is usually different from males.
  • Female pattern hair loss is also influenced by hormones, particularly androgens.
  • However, the pattern is generally more diffuse and spread out compared to the distinct male pattern.
  • Women may experience overall thinning of hair on the entire scalp, with the frontal hairline remaining intact.
  • The part line may start to widen, and the hair density gradually decreases.
  • Female pattern hair loss rarely leads to complete baldness, but it can still cause significant thinning of the hair.

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What are the symptoms of hair loss?

Here are some common symptoms:

  • Gradual Thinning: This is one of the most common symptoms of hair loss, particularly in androgenetic alopecia or male/female pattern baldness. The hair gradually becomes thinner and less dense over time, especially on the top of the scalp or crown area.
  • Receding Hairline: In males, a receding hairline is a characteristic symptom of male pattern baldness. The hairline at the temples starts to recede backward, forming an “M” shape. Over time, the hairline may continue to recede and create a more pronounced forehead.
  • Bald Patches: Some types of hair loss, such as alopecia areata, can cause round or oval-shaped bald patches to appear on the scalp or other areas of the body. These patches may be smooth and without any signs of inflammation or scaling.
  • Excessive Hair Shedding: Shedding a certain amount of hair every day is normal, but if you notice an excessive amount of hair falling out, it may indicate a problem. You may find clumps of hair on your pillow, in the shower drain, or on your hairbrush. This excessive shedding can occur suddenly or gradually.
  • Thinning Eyebrows or Eyelashes: Hair loss can also affect the eyebrows and eyelashes. In some cases, they may become sparser, thinner, or even completely absent.
  • Scalp Itching or Irritation: Certain types of hair loss can cause itching, redness, or inflammation of the scalp. This is commonly seen in conditions like scalp psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis, which can lead to temporary hair loss.
  • Changes in Hair Texture: Hair loss may cause changes in the texture and quality of the remaining hair. It may become brittle, dry, or more prone to breakage.
  • Hair Breakage: Hair loss can sometimes manifest as hair breakage, where the hair shafts become weak and brittle, leading to snapping or breaking off at various lengths. This can be caused by excessive heat styling, chemical treatments, or certain hair care practices.
Hair Loss: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

What are the causes of hair loss?

Hair loss can occur due to various causes, ranging from genetic factors to underlying medical conditions. Understanding the specific causes can help determine the appropriate treatment and management options. Here are some common causes of hair loss explained in detail:

Androgenetic Alopecia (Male/Female Pattern Baldness)

This is the most common cause of hair loss and is primarily influenced by genetics and hormones. In males, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a byproduct of testosterone, affects hair follicles, leading to miniaturization and eventual cessation of hair growth. In females, the hormonal influence is less defined, but genetic factors and hormonal imbalances can contribute to female pattern hair loss.

Alopecia Areata

This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks hair follicles, causing patchy hair loss. The exact cause of alopecia areata is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Telogen Effluvium

This is a temporary form of hair loss characterized by increased shedding of hair. It can be triggered by factors such as physical or emotional stress, surgery, major illness, hormonal changes (e.g., childbirth, menopause), nutritional deficiencies, certain medications, or rapid weight loss. Telogen effluvium disrupts the normal hair growth cycle, pushing a significant number of hair follicles into the resting (telogen) phase prematurely.

Medical Conditions and Treatments

Various medical conditions can cause hair loss. Examples include thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), scalp infections (such as ringworm), autoimmune diseases (like lupus or alopecia areata), certain skin disorders (psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis), and certain types of cancer. Additionally, treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and some medications (e.g., anticoagulants, antidepressants, anticonvulsants) can lead to hair loss as a side effect.

Nutritional Deficiencies

The lack of nutrients such as iron, zinc, biotin, vitamins, and protein can seriously affect hair growth. A lack of these nutrients can disrupt the hair growth cycle and affect the health and strength of the hair.

Hairstyling Practices

Hairstyles that exert excessive tension or pull on the hair, such as tight braids, ponytails, or cornrows, can lead to a condition called traction alopecia. Excessive heat styling, chemical treatments (like perming or straightening), or harsh hair care products can also damage the hair and contribute to hair loss.

Emotional or Physical Stress

Stressful events, such as the loss of a loved one, divorce, or a traumatic experience, can disrupt the normal hair growth cycle and lead to temporary hair shedding.

What are the diagnostic tests specific for hair loss?

When diagnosing hair loss, a healthcare professional or dermatologist will typically begin with a comprehensive medical history review and a physical examination of the scalp and hair.

They may also ask about any family history of hair loss, recent stressors, dietary habits, and medication use. Based on the initial evaluation, further diagnostic tests may be recommended to determine the specific cause of hair loss. Here are some common diagnostic methods used for hair loss:

Pull Test

During a pull test, the healthcare professional gently tugs on a small cluster of hairs to assess how many hairs are easily dislodged. An increased number of hairs coming out may indicate a condition like telogen effluvium.

Scalp Biopsy

In some cases, a scalp biopsy may be performed to obtain a small sample of the scalp skin for further examination under a microscope. This can help identify the specific cause of hair loss, such as alopecia areata or scarring alopecia.

Blood Tests

Blood tests can help identify underlying medical conditions or nutritional deficiencies that may contribute to hair loss.

  • Complete blood count (CBC): To check for anomia or other blood abnormalities.
  • Thyroid function tests: To assess thyroid hormone levels.
  • Hormone levels: Such as testosterone, DHEA-S, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin, to evaluate hormonal imbalances.
  • Ferritin and iron levels: To evaluate iron stores in the body.
  • Vitamin and mineral levels: Including vitamin D, vitamin B12, and zinc, are important for hair health.


Trichoscopy is a non-invasive method that involves using a handheld device with magnification and light to examine the scalp and hair follicles. It can help identify specific patterns, features, and signs of different hair loss conditions.


If a scalp infection such as ringworm is suspected, a culture may be taken from the affected area to identify the presence of fungi or bacteria.


This method involves taking close-up photographs of the scalp and hair to assess hair density and analyze hair growth patterns over time. It can be useful in monitoring treatment progress.

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What is the treatment for hair loss?

The treatment for hair loss depends on the underlying cause and the specific type of hair loss. Here are some common treatment options:


  • Minoxidil (Rogaine): It is available over the counter and applied topically to the scalp. Minoxidil promotes hair growth and may slow down hair loss. It is commonly used for androgenetic alopecia in both men and women.
  • Finasteride (Propecia): This prescription medication is specifically for men with androgenetic alopecia. Finasteride works by reducing the production of DHT, the hormone responsible for shrinking hair follicles.
  • Corticosteroids: In certain cases, corticosteroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response in conditions like alopecia areata.

Hair Transplantation

Hair transplant surgery involves taking hair follicles from areas of the scalp with abundant hair growth (donor site) and transplanting them into the areas with thinning or no hair (recipient site). It is commonly used for male and female pattern baldness.

Laser Therapy

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) devices, such as laser combs or helmets, emit red light to stimulate hair growth. This treatment option is non-invasive and may be used in various types of hair loss.

Topical Medications

Prescription-strength topical corticosteroids or other anti-inflammatory medications may be recommended for certain inflammatory conditions like scalp psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy

PRP contains growth factors that may stimulate hair growth.

Nutritional Supplements

In cases of hair loss due to nutritional deficiencies, supplements containing biotin, zinc, iron, vitamin D, and other essential nutrients may be recommended to promote healthy hair growth.

Lifestyle Changes

Adopting a healthy lifestyle can support hair health. This includes maintaining a balanced diet, managing stress levels, avoiding excessive heat styling and harsh chemical treatments, and practicing good hair care habits.

What are the home remedies for hair loss?

While home remedies may not provide a guaranteed solution for hair loss, some natural remedies and practices may help improve the condition of the hair and promote healthy hair growth. Here are some home remedies that people often try for hair loss:

  • Scalp Massage: Regularly massaging the scalp can help stimulate blood flow to the hair follicles and promote hair growth.
  • Essential Oils: Some essential oils, such as lavender, rosemary, peppermint, and cedarwood, are believed to have properties that promote hair growth. Dilute a few drops of the essential oil with carrier oil (like coconut oil or jojoba oil) and massage it into the scalp.
  • Aloe Vera: Aloe vera gel has soothing properties and can help maintain a healthy scalp. Apply fresh aloe vera gel directly to the scalp, leave it on for about an hour, and then rinse it off with lukewarm water.
  • Onion Juice: Onion juice contains sulfur compounds that are believed to promote hair growth. Extract the juice from an onion and apply it to the scalp. Let it be for approx. half an hour. The strong smell can be reduced by mixing the juice with a few drops of essential oil.
  • Balanced Diet: Ensure that you have a balanced diet rich in nutrients that promote healthy hair growth. Include foods high in vitamins, minerals, and proteins, such as leafy greens, fruits, lean meats, fish, nuts, and seeds.
  • Avoid Harsh Hair Treatments: Limit the use of harsh hair treatments, such as hot styling tools, chemical treatments, and tight hairstyles that can cause damage and breakage to the hair.
  • Stress Management: Stress can contribute to hair loss, so practicing stress management techniques like meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in activities you enjoy can be beneficial.

What is the prevention of hair loss?

While some causes of hair loss, such as genetics, cannot be completely prevented, there are certain steps you can take to help minimize the risk or slow down the progression of hair loss. Here are some preventive measures for hair loss:

  • Maintain a Healthy Diet: Follow a balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats. Nutrients like iron, zinc, biotin, vitamins A and D, and proteins are important for hair health.
  • Avoid Excessive Heat and Chemical Treatments: Limit the use of heat-styling tools like flat irons, curling irons, and blow dryers. Similarly, harsh chemical treatments like perming, straightening, or excessive coloring can weaken the hair and lead to hair loss.
  • Avoid Tight Hairstyles: Avoid hairstyles that pull or stress the hair, such as tight ponytails, braids, buns, or cornrows. These styles can cause traction on the hair follicles, leading to hair breakage or traction alopecia.
  • Manage Stress: Engage in relaxation techniques, exercise regularly, practice mindfulness, or pursue activities you enjoy to help reduce stress levels.
  • Protect Your Hair from the Sun and Environmental Damage: Excessive exposure to the sun’s UV rays and environmental pollutants can damage the hair. Protect your hair by wearing a hat or using hair products containing UV protection when outdoors.
  • Avoid Smoking: Smoking has been linked to hair loss, so quitting smoking or avoiding exposure to second-hand smoke can be beneficial for hair health.
  • Regular Scalp Care: Keep your scalp clean and well-nourished. Avoid excessive use of harsh shampoos and opt for gentle, pH-balanced products. Regularly remove any buildup of oils, debris, or styling products from the scalp to maintain a healthy environment for hair growth.
  • Regular Check-ups: Regularly visit a healthcare professional or dermatologist to monitor your hair and scalp health. They can help identify any early signs of hair loss or scalp conditions and provide appropriate guidance.
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FAQs Related to Hair Loss

Can stress cause hair loss?

Yes, severe emotional or physical stress can contribute to hair loss. It can trigger a condition called telogen effluvium, in which a large number of hair follicles enter the resting phase prematurely, leading to increased shedding.

Is hair loss permanent?

Hair loss can be permanent or temporary, depending on the underlying cause. Conditions like androgenetic alopecia and scarring alopecia can lead to permanent hair loss. However, temporary hair loss, such as that caused by telogen effluvium or certain medical conditions, can often be reversed with appropriate treatment.

Does wearing hats or caps cause hair loss?

Wearing hats or caps does not directly cause hair loss. However, wearing very tight hats for prolonged periods or constantly pulling on the hair when putting on or removing headwear can contribute to hair breakage and traction alopecia.

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